Unlike regular trucks that can be very rigid, the tractor-trailer is more maneuverable. It is also more effective in distributing loads across multiple axles.
As an operator, you need to understand the specifics of semi-trailer dimensions for many reasons. One is that you don’t want to be on the wrong side of the law while carrying on your business.
The federal and state governments have regulations determining the standard semi-trailer trucks’ dimensions. So, how long is a tractor-trailer combination?
Well, following United States law, the average semi-trailer truck is 72 feet long. This measurement covers the front bumper to the rear, including all attachments. You should distinguish this dimension from the length of the trailer, which varies between 48 and 53 feet. Of course, these measurements vary across states.
- 1 What Is a Tractor?
- 3 What Is a Trailer?
- 4 What Is a Tractor-Trailer Combination?
- 5 Why the Dimensions of a Semi-trailer Truck Matter
- 6 Various Lengths of Semi-Trucks
- 8 How Long Should a Tractor-Trailer Combination Be?
- 9 How to Measure Trailer Length
- 10 How to Measure Truck Length
- 11 Federal Regulations for Trailers
- 12 How Long Will a Semi-trailer Last?
- 13 How to Maintain a Semi-Trailer
- 15 How Many Miles Can a Tractor-Trailer Combination Cover?
- 16 Conclusion
What Is a Tractor?
A tractor or truck tractor is a power unit that is self-propelled and is used to pull one or more trailers. A tractor has a steering axle that controls its direction at the front. It also has a drive axle located at the back.
The engine powers the drive axle to pull the load. Some tractors are single axles, while others are tandem axles, which is when a tractor has two axles.
What Is a Trailer?
A trailer is a vehicle that is designed to haul cargo. It usually connects to a tractor by the fifth wheel. Fifth wheels are coupling devices that are mounted on the rear frame of tractors.
It is usually mounted over the tractor’s axles. There are two major categories of trailers: semi-trailers and full-trailers.
While a semi-trailer only has rear axles, a full trailer has axles both in the front and at the rear. A full trailer attaches a converter dolly to a semi-trailer. The sub-categories of trailers include dry van, liquid tanker, flatbed, drop deck, bulk tanker, refrigerated reefer, and intermodal trailer, among others.
What Is a Tractor-Trailer Combination?
In a tractor-trailer combination, a large truck is coupled to a trailer, which carries goods. It is otherwise referred to as a semi-trailer truck or a semi-truck.
It has a minimum of two axles that help it to haul heavy cargo. At the rear of the main cabin is the hitch, which it uses to connect with trailers and other trucks.
Why the Dimensions of a Semi-trailer Truck Matter
A semi-trailer truck’s dimensions, length, width, and height, are essential to haulage. They ultimately determine the quantity of cargo you can haul.
Also, knowing the vehicle’s dimensions will help drivers pick the correct route because drivers come across tight corners and winding roads. Therefore, they tend to find navigating such a route with the wrong vehicle challenging.
On this note, states regulate these dimensions to help the vehicles maintain a smooth flow of commerce and industry.
If you’re the type that hauls long pieces of equipment regularly, it is also essential for you to measure your equipment ahead. This measurement helps you buy the correct length of the trailer.
Various Lengths of Semi-Trucks
Semi-trucks lengths vary depending on their model, brand, and state laws. This variation accounts for why most truckers may reference the lengths of semi-trucks using the BBC measurement.
BBC stands for Bumper to Back of Cab. The average length of the BBC is around 10 feet. However, this depends on the type of cabin.
For instance, some cab areas have extra features such as extended hoods, sleepers, and add-on boxes. All of these extra features can add anything between 2.5 and 6.25 to the length of the cab.
On the other hand, tractors that lack any of these extra features tend to be around 9.5 feet in length. Moreover, there is no overall length limit to truck-trailer combinations.
How Long Should a Tractor-Trailer Combination Be?
As we already stated, there is no specific length limit for truck-trailer combinations. However, there is a minimum length for the combination. In the US highways, some combinations are not permitted to move on certain roads.
First, there is the classic truck tractor-semitrailer combination. According to federal regulations, the minimum length for this type of semi-trailer is 48 feet.
In the case where the truck has two cargo units, the total length must be at most 65 feet. The implication is that each cargo’s length must be at most 28.5 feet.
Whether a flatbed semi-trailer that transports long, heavy, oddly proportioned products or a step deck semi-trailer that transports overly tall products, the maximum length for most semi-trailers stands at 53 feet.
Some states sometimes allow three trailers to be pulled behind a semi-truck. According to proponents, this helps cut shipping costs by more than 20%. The maximum length for this type of trailering ranges between 100 and 105 feet.
How to Measure Trailer Length
It is easy to measure the overall length of any trailer. The first step is to gather your measuring equipment and tools.
Get an accurate tape measure that is long enough to span the entire length of the trailer. A standard tape should have a length of 48 feet. When you have this, everything else falls into place.
To take the measurement, start from the front of the box, then move to the outer wall at the trailer’s opposite end. A quick note: You should not include coupling devices while taking this measurement. Instead, take their measurements separately.
Similarly, to measure the combined length of a tractor and trailer, carry out the measurement individually. In other words, you should measure the tractor and the trailer separately.
How to Measure Truck Length
To measure a truck, start from the frontmost part and then take it to the rearmost part. It’s as simple as that.
Federal Regulations for Trailers
Operating a trailer goes beyond the capacity of trailers to carry loads or the ability of a manufacturer to create the largest one. More importantly, it is also about ensuring that you conform to the legal regulations.
The U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration has a mandated maximum weight for trailers.
It sets this weight based on the spacing of axles. According to it, the gross vehicle weight shouldn’t exceed 80,000 pounds.
There is a weight limit of 20,000 pounds for a trailer with a single axle, and 34,000 for a tandem axle. It is essential to state that some states may not follow the standard. Thus, they may permit heavier gross weight allowances.
How Long Will a Semi-trailer Last?
The general lifespan of a typical semi-trailer will depend, of course, on its type because its type has its time expectancies.
A typical trailer has a lifespan of up to 15 years. However, this depends on how frequently you pull it behind a truck. When you use it regularly, you should expect that its lifespan may likely fall below 15 years.
When compared to most types, a refrigerated trailer has a shorter lifespan. You expect it to be about five years. It may be longer if you use it less frequently or shorter if you use it regularly.
How to Maintain a Semi-Trailer
As already stated, the average lifespan of a semi-trailer depends on its maintenance practice. A semi-trailer’s maintenance is the same as that of a regular passenger vehicle.
This includes the performance of all factor-recommended maintenance. Of course, the owner’s manual will clearly spell out what determines the maintenance that you’ll need to perform.
You must tick all the essential maintenance boxes, including using quality fluid and parts and driving responsibly. A semi-trailer is a huge investment and, therefore, valuable. Think of it as a way to extend the vehicle’s useful life on the road.
How Many Miles Can a Tractor-Trailer Combination Cover?
Any tractor-trailer combination will last longer than a standard pickup truck. Manufacturers designed them to withstand more wear and tear.
Making them enjoy extended miles coverage is critical to haul goods and equipment. Besides, their engines are bigger than passenger trucks.
When you consider their huge size and sophisticated designs, a tractor-trailer combination can cover between 750,000 and 1,000,000 miles.
This coverage is more than four times the lifetime mile coverage of the average truck. However, making the vehicle cover such a long mileage will depend on how you maintain it.
Ultimately, the best type of semi-trailer truck will be the one that adheres to top safety standards. Of course, there are a variety of tractor-trailer combinations to suit different transport purposes.
These trucks do not only vary in length but also other dimensions, such as shape and weight. This variation depends on what the federal regulations and state laws indicate.
The minimum and maximum standards used here are those of the United States. In other words, you may encounter ones of slightly different measurements on the highways.